Monday, May 25, 2020
The Battle of Plataea believed to have been fought in August 479 BC, during the Persian Wars (499 BC-449 BC). Armies Commanders Greeks Pausaniasapprox. 40,000 men Persians Mardoniusapprox. 70,000-120,000 men Background In 480 BC, a large Persian army led by Xerxes invaded Greece. Though briefly checked during the opening phases of the Battle of Thermopylae in August, he eventually won the engagement and swept through Boeotia and Attica capturing Athens. Falling back, Greek forces fortified the Isthmus of Corinth to prevent the Persians from entering the Peloponnesus. That September, the Greek fleet won a stunning victory over the Persians at Salamis. Concerned that the victorious Greeks would sail north and destroy the pontoon bridges he had built over the Hellespont, Xerxes withdrew to Asia with the bulk of his men. Before departing, he formed a force under the command of Mardonius to complete the conquest of Greece. Assessing the situation, Mardonius elected to abandon Attica and withdrew north to Thessaly for the winter. This allowed the Athenians to reoccupy their city. As Athens was not protected by the defenses on the isthmus, Athens demanded that an Allied army be sent north in 479 to deal with the Persian threat. This was met with reluctance by Athens allies, despite the fact that the Athenian fleet was required to prevent Persian landings on the Peloponnesus. Sensing an opportunity, Mardonius attempted to woo Athens away from the other Greek city-states. These entreaties were refused and the Persians began marching south forcing Athens to be evacuated. With the enemy in their city, Athens, along with representatives of Megara and Plataea, approached Sparta and demanded that an army be sent north or they would defect to the Persians. Aware of the situation, the Spartan leadership was convinced to send aid by Chileos of Tegea shortly before the emissaries arrived. Arriving in Sparta, the Athenians were surprised to learn that an army was already on the move. Marching to Battle Alerted to the Spartan efforts, Mardonius effectively destroyed Athens before withdrawing towards Thebes with the goal of finding suitable terrain to employ his advantage in cavalry. Nearing Plataea, he established a fortified camp on the north bank of the Asopus River. Marching in pursuit, the Spartan army, led by Pausanias, was augmented by a large hoplite force from Athens commanded by Aristides as well as forces from the other allied cities. Moving through the passes of Mount Kithairon, Pausanias formed the combined army on high ground to the east of Plataea. Opening Moves Aware that an assault on the Greek position would be costly and unlikely to succeed, Mardonius began intriguing with the Greeks in an effort to break apart their alliance. In addition, he ordered a series of cavalry attacks in an attempt to lure the Greeks off the high ground. These failed and resulted in the death of his cavalry commander Masistius. Emboldened by this success, Pausanias advanced the army to high ground closer to the Persian camp with the Spartans and Tegeans on the right, the Athenians on the left, and the other allies in the center (Map). For the next eight days, the Greeks remained unwilling to abandon their favorable terrain, while Mardonius refused to attack. Instead, he sought to force the Greeks from the heights by attacking their supply lines. Persian cavalry began ranging in the Greek rear and intercepting supply convoys coming through the Mount Kithairon passes. After two days of these attacks, the Persian horse succeeded in denying the Greeks use of the Gargaphian Spring which was their only source of water. Placed in a perilous situation, the Greeks elected to fall back to a position in front of Plataea that night. The Battle of Plataea The movement was intended to be completed in the darkness as to prevent an attack. This goal was missed and dawn found the three segments of the Greek line scattered and out of position. Realizing the danger, Pausanias instructed the Athenians to join with his Spartans, however, this failed to occur when the former kept moving toward Plataea. In the Persian camp, Mardonius was surprised to find the heights empty and soon saw the Greeks withdrawing. Believing the enemy to be in full retreat, he gathered several of his elite infantry units and began pursuing. Without orders, the bulk of the Persian army also followed (Map). The Athenians were soon attacked by troops from Thebes which had allied with the Persians. To the east, the Spartans and Tegeans were assaulted by Persian cavalry and then archers. Under fire, their phalanxes advanced against the Persian infantry. Though outnumbered, the Greek hoplites were better armed and possessed better armor than the Persians. In a long fight, the Greeks began to gain the advantage. Arriving on the scene, Mardonius was struck down by slung stone and killed. Their commander dead, the Persians began a disorganized retreat back towards their camp. Sensing that defeat was near, the Persian commander Artabazus led his men away from the field towards Thessaly. On the western side of the battlefield, the Athenians were able to drive off the Thebans. Pushing forward the various Greek contingents converged on the Persian camp north of the river. Though the Persians vigorously defended the walls, they were eventually breached by the Tegeans. Storming inside, the Greeks proceeded to slaughter the trapped Persians. Of those who had fled to the camp, only 3,000 survived the fighting. Aftermath of Plataea As with most ancient battles, casualties for Plataea are not known with certainty. Depending on the source, Greek losses may have ranged from 159 to 10,000. The Greek historian Herodotus claimed that only 43,000 Persians survived the battle. While Artabazus men retreated back to Asia, the Greek army began efforts to capture Thebes as punishment for joining with the Persians. Around the time of Plataea, the Greek fleet won a decisive victory over the Persians at the Battle of Mycale. Combined, these two victories ended the second Persian invasion of Greece and marked a turn in the conflict. With the invasion threat lifted, the Greeks began offensive operations in Asia Minor.
Friday, May 15, 2020
Assessment of the Legislative Roles in Health Policy Introduction Implementing health policy in the United States combines powerful legal, ethical, and societal factors that can have lasting ramifications for everyone involved. Throughout history, various campaigns to insure the United States citizenry have faced defeat on numerous occasions. During the Truman era, the idea of national insurance gained momentum until Senator Taft likened it to communism and socialism, thus dooming it on all fronts (Physicians for a National Health Program, 2016). This demonstrates the power of the legislative branch to direct the narrative on health policy. The following discussion focuses on the legislative branch and its power to affect important healthcare stakeholders in both positive and negative ways. While implementing healthcare laws indiscriminately is bad policy, the failure to ensure the well-being of citizens to satisfy corporate interests is politics at its worst. The Stakeholders While there are numerous healthcare stakeholders, three sway the legislature through powerful lobbying efforts, and one whose voice gets lost in the rhetoric. Before discussing the legislative role, let us look at four important stakeholders. Payers In 2009, as the healthcare reform debate raged, lobbyists bending the ears of Congress rose exponentially. According to Eaton (2010), while many interest groups convened on Congress, the insurance lobby numbered eight for each member of Congress to ensureShow MoreRelatedEssay on Health and Social Care960 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageswords should include: Outcomes and assessment requirements Outcomes Assessment requirements On successful completion of this unit a learner will: To achieve each outcome a learner must demonstrate the ability to: LO1. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020
I. Introduction A. What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)? B. Living with Generalized Anxiety Disorder II. Symptoms of GAD A. Mental B. Physical III. Who gets GAD? A. Risk Factors B. U.S. Statistics on GAD C. When does GAD start? D. Co-morbidities IV. Treatments for GAD A. Medications B. Therapy C. Self-Help V. Conclusion A. The future of GAD B. Living life with less anxiety C. Final thoughts Anxiety happens to everyone, at some point in time. In fact, a little anxiety can actually be good for you. It can help you respond appropriately to danger, and it can motivate you to excel at work and home. (www.mayoclinic.com) However, when anxiety becomes so strong that it affects your dailyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦(www.nmha.org) GAD affects approximately 6.8 million Americans, or about 3.1% of the population, between the ages of 18 and 54. (www.helpguide.org) Women are affected almost twice the number of times as men. Sadly, almost 2/3 of all people with a severe mental illness never receive treatment. (www.mentalhealth.com) The cost of treating patients with anxiety disorders (including GAD) are astronomical. According to The Economic Burden of Anxiety Disorders, a study commissioned by the ADAA and based on data gathered by the association and published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, anxiety disorders cost the U.S. more than $42 billion a year, almost one third of the $148 billion total mental health bill for the U.S. More than $22.84 billion of those costs are associated with the repeated use of healthcare services, as those with anxiety disorders seek relief for symptoms that mimic physical illnesses. People with an anxiety disorder are three-to-five times more likely to go to the doctor and six times more likely to be hospitalized for psychiatric disorders than non-sufferers. (www.anxietycentre.com) GAD usually has a slow onset and can begin at any age, although the greatest risk is between childhood and middle age. The median age for the onset of GAD is 31. (www.nimh.nih.gov) GAD is a serious mental illness that may affect all facets of ones life. However, there are treatments available for GAD. TheShow MoreRelatedGeneralized Anxiety Disorder771 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagescountry are affected, it is estimated that Ã¢â¬Å"5% - 6% of teens ages 13-18 are affected by this troubling disorder, not including the teens that receive no treatment,Ã¢ â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"GeneralizedÃ¢â¬ ). Youth that receive no treatment could be considered are under privileged. Meaning that they do not have the resources or are very limited to resources that could help them get the proper treatment for their disorder. Many of those adolescents are children that come from low income families, single family homes, or fosterRead MoreGeneralized Anxiety Disorder Essay1602 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¯ » ¿ Case Analysis: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Bryan Wood Abnormal Psychology Professor Powell April 14, 2015 Bryan Wood Mr. Powell PSY 322 April 14, 2015 Case Analysis: Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) Ã¢â¬Å"During a panic attack, the first thing you want to do is get out of the situation that is causing it. However, since most professors find it disrespectful to leave during class, I had to sit for an hour and half in this agonizing stateÃ¢â¬ ¦It was as if I had terminal cancerRead MoreUsing Generalized Anxiety Disorder?1180 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessmall example of what someone with Generalized Anxiety Disorder may go through on a daily business every moment during their day. The topics that are going to be covered in this paper are what is GAD and what are the signs and symptoms, how does GAD affect the ability to perform normal activities of daily living, and an overall summary with my assigned individual at SDC for his Intensive Learning Project. What is Generalized Anxiety Disorder Ã¢â¬Å"Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is characterized by excessiveRead MoreGeneralized Anxiety Disorder Is A Mental Disorder That1410 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesGeneralized anxiety disorder is a mental disorder that affects approximately four to five percent of the general population. This disorder can be illustrated by excessive anxiety and worry that lasts a minimum of six months and deals with various events or activities. People who struggle with this disorder have difficulties controlling their worry; this worry can permeate into every action or thought which leads to increased anxiety. 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Allgulander2012 GAD pervasive cogn dysfunction w/focus on threat and risk tow indiv/family Tension worry muscle pain sleep dist irritability PsychRead MoreGeneralized Anxiety Disorder1142 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGeneralized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disorder of shared self-reported symptoms. It goes with tension, uncontrollable worrying, sometimes muscle pain, trouble sleeping, and irritability that all together impair work ability, relations, and leisure activities. It is a common condition and there are psychological and pharmacological treatment options are available for anxiety disorders but not all patients respond to the same treatment as others. Finding a good treatment can take many months or sometimesRead MoreGeneralized Anxiety Disorder ( Gad ) Essay2397 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesReview Generalized Anxiety Disorder Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a disorder in which an individual may feel persistent, excessive, and worry about everyday things that may not even happen. Individuals with this disorder may feel worry, excessive anxiety, and have thoughts of the worst even when there is no need for concern. A person experiencing GAD may expect a disaster. They may worry about their finances, money, health, family, work, or any issue that may come to mind. This disorder mayRead MoreGeneralized Anxiety Disorder ( Gad )999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGeneralized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is one of the most diagnosed mental disorders today, and can often be closely linked to concurrent symptoms or disorders including physiological, behavioral, other anxiety disorders, depression and substance abuse. (Merino, Senra Ferreiro, 2016) (Cacioppo Fregberg, 2013, p. 688). GAD most notably produces symptoms of excessive worry and anxiety related to non-specific risks, which often leads to functional decline both socially and professionally (Roberge etRead MoreGeneralized Anxiety Disorder2902 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesGeneralized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder that is characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry about everyday things that is disproportionate to the actual source of worry. This excessive worry often interferes with daily functioning, as individuals suffering GAD typically anticipate disaster, and are overly concerned about everyday matters such as health issues, money, death, family problems, friend problems, relationship problems or work difficulties.
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Sex Ed. Essay At some point during your youth, your parents probably took you aside and after several minutes of blushing and throat-clearing gave you the Readers Digest version of the birds and bees. (The folks apparently never realized that you had learned about sex in far more detail several years earlier from a friend in your preschool finger painting class.) But just what did we learn about the actual birds and bees, not to mention the thousands of other species of animals that share the Earth with us? They preen, they strut, they lure and, if all goes as planned, they have sex. You might be surprised by some of the following sexual facts and oddities concerning members of the wild kingdom. Unless that kid in your preschool class already covered this material. Warning: Some of these tidbits are not for the faint of heart. If you havent had the talk yet, you might want to be accompanied by an adult before you proceed. Perhaps the most astounding part of sex in the animal world is the sheer size of some of the sex parts themselves. Were you aware that one testicle of the average Blue whale can weigh up to 100 pounds? You can imagine the problems this causes. This startling fact might explain why you almost never see a Blue whale wearing shorts in public. Whales also hold the record for having the largest penises. A fact which they never fail to mention at parties, by the way. In large Rorqual whales the penis can be up to 10 feet long, with a diameter of up to one foot. Female Rorqual whales are notoriously cheery. Now you know why. But bigger isnt always better, necessarily. It is also interesting to note that insects hold their own record as well. If the largest animals have the largest sexual organs, it would follow that the smallest animals, insects, possess the most diminutive. While too small to be measured precisely, it is estimated that the smallest penis on the Earth is a fraction of a thousandth of an inch in size. Ladies, this will be welcome news to that insecure husband or boyfriend. And now the answer to that other question on your mind. Which animal is the proud owner of the longest sperm? Oddly, in this case, sperm size is not related to the size of the animal. In fact, the longest sperm amongst the mammals is produced by the Chinese hamster (around 30 microns in length.) You might need to know that at some point in your life, though I cant imagine at what point that might be. Perhaps this scenario will present itself:Mugger: All right. Give me your purse. You: Yikes. Mugger: Oh, by the way, Im going to shoot you. You: This light isnt very flattering. Mugger: No, I mean with this gun. You: Oh. Mugger: But you might be able to save yourself. You: And can I keep the purse? Its the only one I have to go with these shoes. Mugger: Just answer this question. Which mammal has the longest sperm?You: The Chinese hamster?Mugger: How should I know? Im a mugger. And while were on the subject, how long is a micron, anyway?The animal world is full of amazing quirks of nature. When it comes to the sexual anatomy and behavior of animals, new discoveries are being made all the time. (Except at 4:30 p.m., Eastern Standard Time.)For instance, most species of creatures have two sexes (male and female, for those of you who havent had the talk yet.) But scientists found that a crustacean, Tanais, has three sexes. The single-celled Parameciam amelia has eight different sexes, and you can be sure that this dramatically increases its chances of finding a date on short notice. Life On The Set EssayIt is surprising just how much sexual activity in the wild is made up of rituals which humans would generally consider painful or cruel. There are many examples of animals which vigorously bite into each other during intercourse (the females take the brunt of this practice), or which link up in other not-so-pleasant ways. The mating of dragonflies is fraught with complexity and discomfort. The male first grasps the thorax of the female with his legs, he then flexes his abdomen forward and affixes two claspers to the female. In some species a sticky secretion bonds the pair together as well. Then they fly off together, mating in mid-air. Clasping before marriage is frowned upon in the wild, incidentally. Mother dragonflies are often heard to say: You should be ashamed of yourself, clasping with every Coenagriidae you meet. In my day, we never let a man grasp our thorax, at least not until he was introduced to our parents.One of the oddest practices in the mating world belongs to a breed of fly. Its technical name is Serromyia femorata. The flies take up a position during sex which resembles kissing, but at the end of mating, the female sucks out the body content of the male through the mouth. So, what weve heard is apparently true. When it comes to a mate, its whats on the inside that counts. Ants, too, have a strange mating ritual. It seems both the queen ant (female) and the prince (male) have wings, and when the mating urge hitsgenerally after consuming a number of imported beersthey fly 100 feet into the air, have a brief copulation, then the males wings fall off and he dies. The female goes on to lay eggs resulting from that brief encounter for a period which can last up to 15 years. (Doctor hurry, its almost time, the contractions are coming six years apart now.) Female ants must surely be hoarse from all the screaming. Just about everyone has heard that the female praying mantis eats the head of its mate after sex. But were you aware that often the female mantis will consume its mates head during sex? Shockingly, this doesnt deter the male from finishing what hes begun. Thats right. If the male mantis has mounted the female before she begins to devour his head, he will successfully complete copulation without it. Most women have always suspected this would be the case with their human counterparts as well. The sexual practices of animals are almost as varied as our own. Porpoises often participate in group sex. Roman snails have been observed performing foreplay. Many fish seem to enjoy kissing as part of the mating ritual. It is believed that deer masturbate during the rutting season by stimulating their antlers. There seems to be no end to the variation. And all without the aid of manuals or how-to videos. Just instinct. All of this serves to remind us that although we fret and complain about our sex lives, we should keep in mind that in many ways weve got it easy. It should also keep us a bit more humble. For while we take a lot of pride in our sexual sophistication, it is useful to keep in mind that there are creatures around who have been doing it faster, longer, more often and even, on occasion, without their heads.
Sunday, April 12, 2020
Background The United Kingdom is made up of the Great Britain and Northern Ireland, which form a constitutional monarchy with the Monarch being the head of state, and the prime minister being the head of government. Under this constitutional framework, the regional governments of Scotland and Wales, the executive of Northern Ireland, and the UK government exercise their respective executive powers.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Is the UK still a two-party system? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More On the other hand, the UK government exercises the legislative powers in collaboration with the two chambers of the legislature, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Furthermore, the Northern Ireland, the Scottish, and the Welsh assemblies do also exercise their respective legislative powers. Moreover, the judiciary is independent of the legislature and the executive, and the Supreme Court of the UK forms the hi ghest court (Ingle 3). Conversely, the UK political party system is made up of several political parties in which two major parties, the Conservative and the Liberal parties, control parliamentary politics and government business. In addition, the Labour party has since replaced the Liberal party as the second major party in the UK. Therefore, over the past few years, the parliamentary politics in the UK show the dominance of the Labour and the Conservative parties in forming either coalition or minority governments. Here, the two major parties have been enlisting the support of other nationalist or third parties to form the working majority (Bartle and Allen 4). As a result, the UK has other parties alongside the two major parties such as the Liberal Democrats, which was born out of the Liberal party joining forces with the Social Democratic Party in 1988. Other nationalist parties in the UK include Plaid Cymru in Wales (1925), the Scottish National Party (1934), the Democratic Uni onist Party (1971) and the Ulster Unionist Party in Northern Ireland (Ingle 5). Therefore, it is arguably correct to describe the British political party system as a two-party system because this has been the case scenario in Britain since the 18th Century through the post-war era (Webb 3). However, since the 1960s, several changes in the history of the British party system are notable, and therefore, the notion that the UK is made up of a two-party system is equally questionable. For instance, in the recent past, most third parties in the UK have shown the willingness to take up more seats during elections, and in some occasions, there has been an obvious change in electoral behavior. Additionally, the regional support for the Labour and Conservative parties is also declining significantly (Webb 4). As a result, this essay presents discussions for and against the notion that the UK is still made up of a two-party system.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The classic two-party system in the UK According to Webb (3), a party system is an integral part of the settlement involving the political and institutional aspects of parliamentary politics. Here, the party system is classified relative to the arithmetical criterion such as two-party or multi-party systems. On the other hand, the party system can be classified according to the level of cooperation between different parties in the system. As a result, parties can interact at the legislative, electoral, regional, and executive arenas, and in so doing, the interactions between political parties create several political authorities and jurisdictions (Kelly 7). As a result, the notion that the UK is made up of a two-party democracy depends on the level of political party interaction and the arena upon which the political interaction is based. That said, the original two parties, which constituted a two-party system in the UK were the Conservatives and the Liberals (Bassett 23). In the 19th Century, the Liberals appeared to be the major governing party in the UK before the party begun an extended period of decline especially after the victory of 1906. As a result, the original two-party system underwent dramatic changes particularly through the rise of the Labour party to replace the Liberals as the second major party. Furthermore, the LiberalsÃ¢â¬â¢ dominance weakened due to the partition of Ireland and the divided support of the Irish people who had to choose between supporting the Labour Party and the Liberals. Consequently, by 1929, the political party system in the UK was made up of three parties (Robins and Jones 34). However, it is correct for one to argue that the political party system in the UK is a classic two-party democracy in the period from 1945 to 1970. During this period, the two major parties in the UK played a central role in the understanding of the political party system in the UK, which is a majoritarian democracy (Denver 588; Webb 8). Here, the existence of other parties in parliamentary politics of the UK is overshadowed by the fact that the two major parties receive most of the votes during elections, and that these parties control the government business in parliament. Additionally, the nature of electoral behavior can be described as disproportionate because the first-past-the-post system of voting that has been in place since 1945 encourages and sustains a two-party democracy in the UK, and thereby making it unlikely for other third parties to be recognized (Blau 431).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Is the UK still a two-party system? specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Furthermore, the first-past-the-post electoral system denies the third parties the chance to receive national support, and as a result, these parties enlist the support of regional political jurisdictions, w hich means that their chances of forming the working majority in parliament depend on other major parties (Clarke et al. 123). Conversely, studies show that the Labour and the Conservative parties favor the first-past-the-post electoral system despite the efforts made by the Liberals to have the UK adopt a three-party system that gives all the three parties the opportunity to form the government relative to the number of seats held by a certain party (Johnston et al. 143). As a result, the first-past-the-post system has given either of the two main parties an added advantage of receiving the majority votes except in 1974 when the Labour Party received a narrow victory. Despite receiving a small majority vote, the Labour Party continued to dominate the UK parliamentary politics through 1977 because the party enlisted the support of other third parties particularly through the Lib-Lab pact that saw the Labour and the Liberal parties forming a coalition government (Sanders 13). Convers ely, apart from the first-past-the-post electoral system, the likelihood of either the Liberal or the Welsh and Scottish Nationalist parties dismantling the two-party system in the early 1950s was challenged by the lack of enough resources and well known candidates (Field 196). However, in 2001, the Liberal democrats and the nationalists managed to produce candidates for most of the contested seats. As a result, the move by the third parties to produce their own candidates against those of the Conservatives and the Labour Party has had a significant impact on the two-party system in the UK. Here, the supporters of third parties had a choice to make in terms of voting for either of the two main parties or none particularly when the party of their choice failed to produce the preferred candidate in a particular constituency. As a result, the third parties almost doubled their support and votes against the two main parties in the period from 1950 to 1997. However, vote sharing between the third parties and the two main parties in the UK shows a little or no impact at all on the dynamics of the two-party system because the Conservative and Labour Parties still maintain unwavering dominance relative to the overall number of seats held by the two parties in the parliament to date (Whiteley et al. 354). Furthermore, the two-party system in the UK has been linked to certain aspects of electoral behavior and class alignment. Here, the two main parties enjoy political dominance because they represent the working and the middle classes (Mughan 195). Conversely, the Liberal democrats and the nationalists do not enjoy any class representation, and thus they are said to be politically disadvantaged. This electoral phenomenon is known as class alignment.Advertising Looking for essay on government? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More As a result, to control more votes and political power, the Labour party and the Conservatives must enlist the support of the majority of the working class and a considerable percentage of the middle class (Whiteley 581). That said, most studies show that the period from 1950 to 1970 was an era of class alignment whereby the strong link between electoral behavior and class status appears to have denied other third parties the opportunity to make a significant impact in the parliamentary politics (Bassett 45). During this period, the two main parties received the highest percentage of votes from the two main classes because the parties represented class interests and values. Furthermore, the Conservatives and the Labour Party had several strong-holds such as South-East England for the Conservative Party, and the North of Wale and England for the Labour Party (Denver 590). As a result, other unrepresented constituencies played a central role in deciding the electoral outcomes because the degree of support for the two main parties was marginal or more balanced. However, since the 1970s, the connection between the electoral behavior and class status has been weakening but very much intact because of another political phenomenon known as partisan de-alignment. Through partisan de-alignment, the Conservative Party managed to receive the highest support of the working class in the period from 1979 to 1992 especially after the government formed by the Labour Party became consistently incredible (Clarke et al. 126). However, the extra support for the Conservatives begun to decline in 1992 after the Labour Party regained its credibility, and the victories of the Labour Party in 1997 and 2001 can be attributed to the shift of the middle-class support from the Conservatives to the Labour party. Therefore, it is probable that the dominance of the two main parties in the UK is still intact though weak. The rise of the multi-party system in the UK Despite that the two-party system is still intact in British politics to date, the electoral behaviors and voting tactics relative to the support for the two main parties have changed in different aspects. For instance, the notion that the two main parties will take the first or the second positions in most constituencies is no longer feasible. Moreover, the Conservative PartyÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity in some political jurisdictions such as Scotland is on the decline due to the emergence of the strong support for Liberals and nationalists. Additionally, considering that the Conservative Party was the most famous political party in Scotland, and the second best in Wales until the 1950s, it is probable that the Conservatives have lost the Welsh and Scottish support because the party has failed in many ways to represent the people of Scotland and Wales (Kelly 54). Moreover, the intensified calls for devolution in some political jurisdictions further ruined the dominance of the Conservatives. However, during Margaret ThatcherÃ¢â¬â¢s reign as the Prime Minister, the Labour Party survived losing out on majority votes while the Conservatives lost almost all seats in Scotland and Wales. Here, the Welsh and Scottish people supported the Labour Party because the party stood for the devolution agenda in the two regions, and therefore, through the combined support from the Liberal Democrats and other Nationalist Parties, the Labour Party survived the storm, and went ahead to regain power and political dominance at Westminster (Denver 596). On the other hand, the Liberal Democratic Party enjoys the support from most regional political jurisdictions as the second best party in parliamentary politics. In some of these regions such as England, the existence of three competing parties makes it difficult for one to clearly define the political party system that is in place (Webb 15). For instance, in the recent past, there has been evidence of a two-party system in England whereby the electorate chooses bet ween either the Liberal Democrats and Conservatives or the Labour Party and the Liberal Democrats instead of the usual trend of Labour and Conservatives (Sanders 15). Furthermore, in more balanced or marginal political jurisdictions, the battle for majority votes can either be three-way or four-way. For example, in Scotland and Wales, which have their respective regional assemblies, there is evidence of proportional representation of four different parties in parliamentary elections (Johnston et al. 154). Therefore, proportional representation of political parties in some regions of the UK shows that third parties have almost regained the support of different social classes, and as a result, their influence in parliamentary politics cannot be ignored. Furthermore, most Liberal Democrats propose that introducing electoral reforms in the UK will not only end the era of social class-oriented party representation, but it will also rid the UK of unpopular policies by single parties that pretend to represent the interests of the majority of voters (Field 200). In addition, the popularity of a two-party system in the UK has declined significantly due to tactical voting. Here, tactical voting entails the various techniques used by most third parties to challenge the dominance and governance of the two major parties (Robins and Jones 56). As a result, tactical voting has been used to replace unpopular governments and ineffective opposition parties in the UK for many decades now. However, the most spectacular show of tactical voting appears in 1997 whereby the Labour Party enjoyed a clean sweep of majority seats despite the Liberal Democrats claiming a reasonable number of parliamentary seats. In addition, the Conservatives suffered a disastrous blow during the 1997 elections because the party lost almost all the seats in some regions where the tactical voting technique was successfully executed (Sanders 20). Subsequently, the Labour Party was also affected by tactical voting in 2005 whereby most voters failed to support the party because they felt that the Iraq war was unwarranted, and thus the voters were out to punish the political elite. Consequently, other third parties gained from tactical voting with the Liberal Democrats obtaining a historical tally of 62 parliamentary seats in 2005 (Denver 604). Thus, it is probable that the majoritarian system of a two-party democracy is weakening, and it will soon come to an end. Relative to the discussions above, it is arguably correct to state that the UK is still made up of a two-party system despite that the systemÃ¢â¬â¢s popularity is weakening due to proportional representation of political parties, which threatens to replace the two-party system with a multi-party system. However, in some regions such as Scotland and Wales, the two-party system has been completely replaced by a four-party voting system whereby the Labour Party is still the dominant party, and the Liberal Democrats together with other Nationalist parties assume the second place while the Conservatives are trail in the last position (Bartle and Allen 45). Furthermore, the two main parties in the UK can no longer form the government on a minority vote, and thus, the two parties depend on the first-past-the-post system to form the working majority in parliament. Through the first-past-the-post system, which manipulates the balance the seats held by a particular political party and the total votes cast to favor the dominance of the two main parties, the influence of other third parties in politics at the national level is still overshadowed (Blau 453). Therefore, the first-past-the-post electoral system gives the impression of the existence of a two-party system in the UK to date. For instance, in the period from 2005 to 2010, there is evidence of a return to the traditional voting tactics despite the emergence of new and powerful party leaders. And in the 2010 elections, the Conservatives demonstrated their d ominance in British politics despite the popularity of the Liberal Democratic leader increasing suddenly (Bartle and Allen 65). Furthermore, Scotland shocked many by supporting the Labour Party as opposed to the Liberal Democrats, and in other regions, the support for the two main parties was almost the same as in the past years. Therefore, the probability that a two-party system is still intact in the UK is relatively high despite the electorate expressing concern over the credibility of the two main parties in delivering popular policies relative to the ever changing political and economic environments. Conclusions The essay presents the discussions for and against the notion that the UK is still made up of a two-party system. The foregoing discussions show that the Conservatives and the Labour party have been enjoying political dominance over the years with the period from 1945 to 1970 being characterized by a classic two-party system. Furthermore, the two-party system has been i n place parallel to the existence of other third parties such as the Liberal Democrats and the nationalists, which are at a political disadvantage because they lack enough resources and candidates who can make a national political impact. However, the period from 1970 to date has been marked by the emergence of strong support for third parties against the two main parties. Therefore, despite that the third parties have failed to replace the two-party system with a multi-party system, the parties have made a significant impact in British politics in terms of encouraging proportional representation of most political parties in some political jurisdictions in the UK. However, the first-past-the-post electoral system is still intact and in full support of the two-party system, and thus more needs to be done in terms of encouraging electoral reforms to counter or replace the two-party system in the UK. Works Cited Bartle, John and Allen Nicholas. Britain at the polls 2010. London: Sage P ublications Ltd, 2010. Print. Bassett, Reginald. Essentials of parliamentary democracy. 2nd ed. London: Charles Birchall Sons Ltd, 1964. Print. Blau, Adrian. Ã¢â¬Å"A quadruple whammy for first-past-the-post.Ã¢â¬ Electoral Studies 23.3 (2004): 431-453. Print. Clarke, Harold, Stewart Marianne, and Zuk Gary. Ã¢â¬Å"Politics, economics and party popularity in Britain, 1979-83.Ã¢â¬ Electoral Studies 5.2 (1986): 123-141. Print. Denver, David. Ã¢â¬Å"The results: how Britain voted.Ã¢â¬ Parliamentary Affairs 63.4 (2010): 588 606. Print. Field, William. Ã¢â¬Å"Policy and the British voter: council housing, social change, and party preference in the 1980s.Ã¢â¬ Electoral Studies 16.2 (1997): 195-202. Print. Ingle, Stephen. The British party system: an introduction. 4th ed. New York: Routledge, 2008. Print. Johnston, Robert, Pattie Claire, and Johnston Lan. Ã¢â¬Å"The impact of constituency spending on the results of the 1987 British general elections.Ã¢â¬ Electoral Studies 8.2 (1989): 143-155. Print. Kelly, Richard. Changing party policy in Britain: an introduction. UK: Blackwell Publishers Ltd, 1999. Print. Mughan, Anthony. Ã¢â¬Å"General election forecasting in Britain: a comparison of three simple models.Ã¢â¬ Electoral Studies 6.3 (1987): 195-207. Print. Robins, Lynton and Jones, Bill. Half a century of British politics. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1997. Print. Sanders, David. Ã¢â¬Å"Pre-election polling in Britain, 1950-1997.Ã¢â¬ Electoral Studies 22.1 (2003): 1-20. Print. Webb, Paul. The British party system. London: Sage Publications Ltd, 2000. Print. Whiteley, Paul, Sanders David, Stewart Marianne, and Clarke Harold. Ã¢â¬Å"Aggregate level forecasting of the 2010 general election in Britain: the seats-votes model.Ã¢â¬ Electoral Studies 3.1 (2010): 354-361. Print. Whiteley, Paul. Ã¢â¬Å"Evaluating rival forecasting models of the 2005 general election in Britain-An encompassing experiment.Ã¢â¬ Electoral Studies 27.4 (2008): 581-588. Print. This essay on Is the UK still a two-party system? was written and submitted by user Thomas Blevins to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 10, 2020
The History of Prohibition in the United States Prohibition was a period of nearly 14 years of U.S. history (1920 to 1933) in which the manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating liquor was made illegal. It was a time characterized by speakeasies, glamor, and gangsters and a period of time in which even the average citizen broke the law. Interestingly,Ã Prohibition, sometimes referred to as the Noble Experiment, led to the first and only time an Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was repealed. Temperance Movements After the American Revolution, drinking was on the rise. To combat this, a number of societies were organized as part of a new Temperance movement, which attempted to dissuade people from becoming intoxicated. At first, these organizations pushed moderation, but after several decades, the movements focus changed to complete prohibition of alcohol consumption. The Temperance movement blamed alcohol for many of societys ills, especially crime and murder. Saloons, a social haven for men who lived in the still untamed West, were viewed by many, especially women, as a place of debauchery and evil. Prohibition, members of the Temperance movement urged, would stop husbands from spending all the family income on alcohol and prevent accidents in the workplace caused by workers who drank during lunch. The 18th Amendment Passes At the beginning of the 20th century, there were Temperance organizations in nearly every state. By 1916, over half of the U.S. states already had statutes that prohibited alcohol. In 1919, the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, which prohibited the sale and manufacture of alcohol, was ratified. It went into effect on January 16, 1920- beginning the era known as Prohibition. The Volstead Act While it was the 18th Amendment that established Prohibition, it was the Volstead Act (passed on October 28, 1919) that clarified the law. The Volstead Act stated that beer, wine, or other intoxicating malt or vinous liquors meant any beverage that was more than 0.5% alcohol by volume. The Act also stated that owning any item designed to manufacture alcohol was illegal and it set specific fines and jail sentences for violating Prohibition. Loopholes There were, however, several loopholes for people to legally drink during Prohibition. For instance, the 18th Amendment did not mention the actual drinking of liquor. Also, since Prohibition went into effect a full year after the 18th Amendments ratification, many people bought cases of then-legal alcohol and stored them for personal use. The Volstead Act allowed alcohol consumption if it was prescribed by a doctor. Needless to say, large numbers of new prescriptions were written for alcohol. Gangsters and Speakeasies For people who didnt buy cases of alcohol in advance or know a good doctor, there were illegal ways to drink during Prohibition. A new breed of gangster arose during this period. These people took notice of the amazingly high level of demand for alcohol within society and the extremely limited avenues of supply to the average citizen. Within this imbalance of supply and demand, gangsters saw a profit. Al Capone in Chicago is one of the most famous gangsters of this time period. These gangsters would hire men to smuggle in rum from the Caribbean (rumrunners) or hijack whiskey from Canada and bring it into the U.S. Others would buy large quantities of liquor made in homemade stills. The gangsters would then open up secret bars (speakeasies) for people to come in, drink, and socialize. During this period, newly hired Prohibition agents were responsible for raiding speakeasies, finding stills, and arresting gangsters, but many of these agents were underqualified and underpaid, leading to a high rate of bribery. Attempts to Repeal the 18th Amendment Almost immediately after the ratification of the 18th Amendment, organizations formed to repeal it. As the perfect world promised by the Temperance movement failed to materialize, more people joined the fight to bring back liquor. The anti-Prohibition movement gained strength as the 1920s progressed, often stating that the question of alcohol consumption was a local issue and not something that should be in the Constitution. Additionally, the Stock Market Crash in 1929 and the beginning of the Great Depression started changing peoples opinion. People needed jobs. The government needed money. Making alcohol legal again would open up many new jobs for citizens and additional sales taxes for the government. The 21st Amendment Is Ratified On December 5, 1933, the 21st Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified. The 21st Amendment repealed the 18th Amendment, making alcohol once again legal. This was the first and only time in U.S. history that an Amendment has been repealed.
Sunday, February 23, 2020
Hamlet's Describe Ophelia's Mad Scene - Essay Example Ophelia leaves and re-enters, this time singing of the way her father was buried. Her lyrics are quite meaningful and bring the weaknesses of Gertrude and Claudius to the limelight. Her madness is important for Claudius because he thinks it to be the reason for a change in HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s attitude. Laertes is provoked by the saddening songs of his sister. Her songs remind Laertes of his killed father. Therefore, his passion to take revenge of his fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s murder flares up because of opheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s songs. OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s indication of the seduction of maids causes the audience to think as if Hamlet has had an affair with her on a physical level, though this mystery remains unresolved throughout the play. Gertrude is particularly disturbed by OpheliaÃ¢â¬â¢s song because inspired Laertes may harm Claudius taking him for the murderer of Polonius. Later, Ophelia offers different flowers to Claudius, Gertrude and Laertes. To Laertes, Ophelia presents Rosemary and Pansies. To Cl audius, Ophelia hands over Daisies and Rues and she gives Columbines and Fennel to Gertrude. In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s age, each of these flowers had standard meanings. Pansies and Rosemary were used to signify remembrance. Thus, by giving Laertes these flowers, Ophelia essentially makes Laertes remember his father and encourages him to take his revenge. Columbines and Fennels signified unfaithfulness and flattery respectively.